Our research spans and integrates several basic domains.  First, we focus on improving the social aspects of classrooms and schools.  The bulk of our research in this area focuses on trying to improve teacher-student relationships either via (a) leveraging similarity and showing teachers and students what they have in common or (b) by improving teachers and/or students capacities to take the perspective of the other party.  Second, several papers make an effort to improve survey design processes and practices in social science research.  Third, we are trying to enhance the efficacy of environmental education and sustainability practices more generally.  However, this is our newest area of research and thus the least developed strand.  Finally, we place tremendous value on translational work that speaks directly to practitioners.

Sunset during the Rey Fire

Available Working Papers

Gehlbach, H., & Robinson, C.* (manuscript under review). Mitigating illusory results through pre-registration in education.

Mascio, B.*, McIntyre, J.*, & Gehlbach, H. † (manuscript under review). Social perspective taking: A professional development induction to improve teacher-student relationships and student learning.

Page, L. C., & Gehlbach, H. (working paper). How an artificially intelligent virtual assistant helps students navigate the road to college.

Wild Turkey near Lake Cachuma

Similarity/Teacher-Student Relationships

Gehlbach, H., Brinkworth, M. E.*, King, A. M.*, Hsu, L. M.*, McIntyre, J.*, & Rogers, T. (2016). Creating Birds of Similar Feathers: Leveraging Similarity to Improve Teacher–Student Relationships and Academic Achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:dx.doi.org/10.1037/edu0000042

Gehlbach, H., & Robinson, C.* (2016). Commentary: The foundational role of teacher-student relationships. In K. R. Wentzel & G. Ramani (Eds.), Handbook of Social Influences in School Contexts: Social-Emotional, Motivation, and Cognitive Outcomes (pp. 230-238). United Kingdom: Informa.

Brinkworth, M. E.*, & Gehlbach, H. † (2015). Perceptual barriers to teacher-student relationships: Overcoming them now and in the future. In C. Rubie-Davies & J. M. Stephens (Eds.), The Social Psychology of the Classroom International Handbook.

Gehlbach, H., Brinkworth, M. E.*, & Harris, A. D. (2012). Changes in teacher-student relationships. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 690-704. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02058.x

Gehlbach, H. (2010). The social side of school: Why teachers need social psychology. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 349-362. doi: 10.1007/s10648-010-9138-3

Viola, J.*, McIntyre, J.*, & Gehlbach, H. † (in press). Teachers’ interest in students’ personal development: The creation of a new survey scale. SAGE Research Methods Cases.

Grizzly bear at Yellowstone National Park

Social Perspective Taking

Gehlbach, H. (2017). Learning to walk in another’s shoes. Phi Delta Kappan, 98(6), 8-12.

Gehlbach, H., Marietta, G.*, King, A.*, Karutz, C., Bailenson, J. N., & Dede, C. (2015). Many ways to walk a mile in another’s moccasins: Type of social perspective taking and its effect on negotiation outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 523–532. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.035

Gehlbach, H., & Brinkworth, M. E.* (2012). The social perspective taking process:  Strategies and sources of evidence in taking another’s perspective. Teachers College Record, 114(1), 226-254. 

(Video feature: http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=16215)  

Gehlbach, H., Brinkworth, M. E.*, & Wang, M.-T.* (2012). The social perspective taking process:  What motivates individuals to take another’s perspective? Teachers College Record, 114(1), 197-225. 

(Video feature: http://www.tcrecord.org/content.asp?contentid=16215)

Gehlbach, H., Young, L. V.*, & Roan, L. (2012). Teaching social perspective taking:  How educators might learn from the Army. Educational Psychology, 32(3), 295-309. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2011.652807

Gehlbach, H., Brown, S. W., Ioannou, A., Boyer, M. A., Hudson, N., Niv-Solomon, A., et al. (2008). Increasing interest in social studies: Social perspective taking and self-efficacy in stimulating simulations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 894-914. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.11.002

Gehlbach, H., & Brinkworth, M. E.* (2008). Motivated thinkers and the mistakes they make: The goals underlying social cognitions and their consequences for achievement. In M. L. Maehr, S. Karabenick & T. Urdan (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement:  Social psychological perspectives. (Vol. 15, pp. 119-144). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Gehlbach, H. (2004). A new perspective on perspective taking: A multidimensional approach to conceptualizing an aptitude. Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 207-234. doi: 10.1023/b:edpr.0000034021.12899.11

Gehlbach, H. (2004). Social perspective taking: A facilitating aptitude for conflict resolution, historical empathy, and social studies achievement. Theory and Research in Social Education, 32(1), 39-55.

Clouds rolling in over Glacier National Park

Survey/Research Methods

Bahena, S.*, Schueler, B.*, McIntyre, J.*, & Gehlbach, H. † (2016). Assessing parent perceptions of school fit: The development of a survey scale. Applied Developmental Science, 20(2), 121-134. doi:10.1080/10888691.2015.1085308

Gehlbach, H. (2015). Seven survey sins. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35, 883-897. doi:10.1177/0272431615578276

Schueler, B. E.*, Capotosto, L.*, Bahena, S.*, McIntyre, J.*, & Gehlbach, H. † (2014). Measuring parent perceptions of school climate. Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 314-320. doi: 10.1037/a0034830 and 10.1037/a0034830.supp (Supplemental)

Artino, A. R., Jr., La Rochelle, J. S., DeZee, K. J., & Gehlbach, H. † (2014). AMEE Guide No 87: Developing questionnaires for educational research. Medical Teacher. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.889814.

Gehlbach, H., & Barge, S.* (2012). Anchoring and adjusting in questionnaire responses. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 34(5), 417-433. doi: 10.1080/01973533.2012.711691

Artino, A. R., Jr., & Gehlbach, H. (2012). AM last page: Avoiding four visual-design pitfalls in survey development. Academic Medicine: Journal Of The Association Of American Medical Colleges, 87(10), 1452.

Barge, S.*, & Gehlbach, H. † (2012). Using the theory of satisficing to evaluate the quality of survey data. Research in Higher Education, 53(2), 182-200. doi: 10.1007/s11162-011-9251-2.

Gehlbach, H., & Brinkworth, M. E.* (2011). Measure twice, cut down error: A process for enhancing the validity of survey scales. Review of General Psychology, 15(4), 380-387. doi: 10.1037/a0025704

Artino, A. R., Jr., Gehlbach, H., & Durning, S. J. (2011). AM Last Page: Avoiding Five Common Pitfalls of Survey Design. Academic Medicine: Journal Of The Association Of American Medical Colleges, 86(10), 1327-1327.

Gehlbach, H., Artino, A. R., Jr., & Durning, S. (2010). AM last page: Survey development guidance for medical education researchers. Academic Medicine: Journal Of The Association Of American Medical Colleges, 85(5), 925-925.

Bison patrolling the roads in Yellowstone

Sustainability & Environmental Education

Coming soon!


Other Areas of Interest

Schneider, J., White, R. A., Jacobsen, R. J., & Gehlbach, H. (in press). The (mis)measure of schools: How data affect stakeholder knowledge and perceptions of quality. Teacher's College Record.

Gehlbach, H. (2006). How changes in students' goal orientations relate to outcomes in social studies. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(6), 358-370. doi: 10.3200/joer.99.6.358-370

Stephens, J., & Gehlbach, H. (2007). Under pressure and under-engaged: Motivational profiles and academic cheating in high school. In E. Anderman & T. B. Murdock (Eds.), Psychology of academic cheating. Boston: Elsevier Academic Press.

Field of geysers at Yellowstone National Park

Practitioner-Oriented Pieces

Gehlbach, H. (2011). Making social studies social: Engaging students through different forms of social perspective taking. Theory Into Practice, 50(4), 311-318. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2011.607394

Gehlbach, H., & Roeser, R. W. (2002). The middle way to motivating middle school students: Avoiding false dichotomies. Middle School Journal, 33(3), 39-46.